cost of family planning programs in the next 20 years will exceed the resulting savings in expenditures required to achieve health service goals, other and much larger direct benefits accrue for major development goals, such as food, housing, education, employment, industrialization, and income. Although there is no certainty that family planning programs based upon current technology will, of themselves, alter natality rates sufficiently for optimal national development, it is certain that they will contribute to natality reduction and that they will be an essential means through which other natality control measures must operate. The conclusion is inescapable that the World Health Organization and other international and national technical assistance organizations should move rapidly to develop capabilities and resources to assist LDC's over the next 20 years or more with natality control programs of at least the magnitude of the worldwide campaign to eradicate malaria. REFERENCES 1. Berelson, Bernard, "National Family Planning Programs: Where We Stand" Fertility and Family Planning, S. J. Behrman et al., eds. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 1969. pp. 341-387. 2. Barlow, Robin, The Economic Effects of Malaria Eradication. Bureau of Public Health Economics Research Series No. 15. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan, 1968. 3. McKeown, Thomas, "Medicine and World Population," Public Health and Population Change, Mindel C. Sheps and Jeanne C. Ridley, eds., Pittsburgh: Univ. of Pittsburgh Press, 1965. pp. 25-40. 4. Newman, Peter, Malaria Eradication and Population Growth. Bureau of Public Health Economics Research Series No. 10. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan, 1965. 5. United Nations Demographic Yearbook, 1967. New York: United Na- tions, 1968. 6. United Nations Statistical Yearbook, 1968. New York: United Nations, 1969. 7. United Nations Demographic Yearbook, 1965. New York: United Na- tions, 1966. 8. United Nations Demographic Yearbook, 1966. New York: United Na- tions, 1967. achieve the size and distribution of its people most consonant with its resources and way of life, investments in family planning are one important means toward achieving a given natality level. They may be a critical factor in initiating natality declines in the present historical circumstances of most LDC's.